RT XIX Chap 3 The Cybersecurity Considerations in Evolution of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning
From the Book: The Refractive Thinker® Vol XIX: Social Media: Changing the World Through Communication


The transformation of communication networks since the 1980s includes worldwide interactions, revolutionizing social networks to effect businesses, relationships, and lives. The ubiquity of electronic communication evolved from the extensive research in solving problems, pertaining to wartime communication strategies, which evolved the social media. The social networks came into existence in the 21st century to include predominantly Facebook, Google+ (G+), Instagram, LinkedIn, MySpace, Twitter, and YouTube, allowing connections and exchange of information. The risks for attacks exist in a world threatened by a range of spywares, installing malware to infect endpoints, exploiting software vulnerabilities to botnets, propagating similar to worms or viruses to launch coordinated attacks, presenting major threats and necessitating greater attention to individual security. The widespread commercialization of computing and modernization of electronic computers and the Internet ease delivery of services in the growing field of communication. The threat from malware and bots in communication networks to possibilities of biological warfare on a global level could run the lifecycle of a botnet to infect communication networks, devastating health, world-wide. The execution of the botnets infects vulnerable machines, using similar methods as other classes of malware. Botnets consist of robots and networks of infected machines with malware that an adversary controls, remotely to compromise vulnerabilities in computer systems, in cooperation with other bots, to accomplish certain illegal activities or tasks on a large scale to jeopardize the operation of private and public sectors. An application of a botnet infects endpoints, exploiting vulnerabilities in software, social engineering, and other defining characteristics using a command and control (C&C) infrastructure for communication between a threat actor, a botmaster or bot-herder and bot armies.