RT Vol XX: Chap 5 Crisis Management Techniques for Transformational Leaders
From the Book: The Refractive Thinker: Vol XX: Crisis Management: Effective Business Solutions for Emergency Situations


Comprehensive knowledge of crisis management techniques is key for effective leadership. These techniques are an important aspect of business that many leaders overlook. Leaders that do not implement effective strategies to manage crises are at risk of developing unnecessary distress within their organization. The business problem in this multiple case study is business leaders lack strategies to overcome or mitigate crises within organizations, which can result in business failure. The findings of this study contributed to social change by providing business leaders with solutions for managing crisis situations and ensuring the recovery or sustainability of a business and its operations during emergencies..

A crisis can be a disruptive event or a partial disruption in which people, property, equipment, or the environment negatively affects a company’s value (Vardarlıer, 2016). Management of a crisis situation or taking a leadership role during an event needs an amalgamation of required skills, knowledge, and abilities. This will lead to effective crisis management with better plans and responses (Alharthi & Khalifa, 2019).

Farazmand's (2009) theory of surprise management is the conceptual basis of this study and was supported by the transformational leadership theory. Effective crisis planning combined with a refractive thinking approach helps identify the early warning signals for a crisis, even if the problem may not be seen or recognized, or is evident but no action is taken (Paraskeves, 2006). Various types of crises occur within an organization. Leaders need to have strategies and crisis management techniques based on the type of crisis within the organization.
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