Dr. Cheryl is one of the most vibrant, intelligent, and creative individuals, I have ever worked with.Dr. Laura GrandgenettCassville, WI
My promotion to full Professor was just approved. According to the feedback I’ve received, my chapter in The Refractive Thinker was a factor in establishing my scholarship credentials.Dr. Joseph PughProfessor
The Refractive Thinker® is a roadmap that discusses many dimensions of change management.Mary Beth HartlebPrism Global Management GroupHenderson, NV
The authors contributing to this series are some of the best critical thinkers in their field of study.Dr. Rich SchuttlerPro Progress AcademyPhoenix, AZ
To find the hidden open positions, you have to network with the ‘righ’t people and the members of The Refractive Thinker® community are ‘the right people’. After a recent layoff, I reached out to The Refractive Thinker® community to assist in my job search. Success!Dr. Karleen YappColorado State University-GlobalDelran, New Jersey
Publishing is an expensive venture, time consuming, and most times heartbreaking just trying to get through the door. Who has an easy time with rejection of what may be potentially life changing theories? Join The Refractive Thinker® Family where academic writing is economically published.Dr. Beverly CarterNew Rochelle, New York
“Dear Dr. Cheryl Lentz: As we are working towards completing my book, I find that your editing is very thorough and detailed. I wish many college professors can learn from your style”. Zack Hasan, Ph.D., P.E.
Dr. Cheryl developed a totally new approach to publishing for The Refractive Thinker.®.Dr. Edward KnabEmbry Riddle UniversityPalm Springs, CA
Dr. Cheryl is a very brilliant woman, teacher, coach, friend, and a leader. I was attracted to her because of her unselfishness, and a willing heart to not only share the knowledge she has with those around her, but also to empower them to look beyond themselves. Dr. Cheryl, I thank you for everything, your wisdom, coaching, and for giving me a wing to fly on. You are an amazing strong woman and a great friend that shares all she has!Eva KatushabeLas Vegas, NV
The Refractive Thinker® series will help you integrate refractive thinking into your core strategies.Brian JudBook Marketing WorksAvon, CT
Rt Ch 3: Vol XVII The Good Organizational Citizen: Collectivist or Individualist?
From the Book: The Refractive Thinker® Vol XVII: Managing a Cultural Workforce: The Impact of Global Employees
SummaryIn today’s competitive labor market, global organizations strive to increase productivity and decrease costs. Growing the bottom line remains more challenging as organizations face declining global fertility rates coupled with the inexorable reality of replacing an aging workforce. The challenge of a shrinking labor pool led to a talent shortage (Economist, 2009), which in turn, placed pressure on organizations to maximize existing employees’ contributions (Cates, Mathis & Randle, 2010; Dávila, Celeste & Finkelstein, 2011; Hoffman, Blair, Meriac, & Woehr. 2007; Zhang, Liao, & Zhao., 2011).
Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is “performance that supports the social and psychological environment in which task performance takes place” (Organ, 1997, p. 95) and behavior that “lubricate[s] the social machinery of the organization” (Bateman & Organ, 1983, p. 588). It is behavior that helps organizations and individuals. Williams and Anderson (1991) organized OCB into two categories based on the target of the behavior: OCB directed towards benefitting the organization (OCBO) and OCB directed towards benefitting individuals (OCBI).
OCB positively impacts organizational effectiveness measures such as job satisfaction, improved productivity, increased efficiency, reduced costs, increased customer satisfaction, reduced absenteeism, happier, more enthusiastic employees, better quality work, and a positive impact on the organization’s profits.
This author (Curry, 2016) sought to determine whether two forms of individualism (vertical and horizontal) and two forms of collectivism (vertical and horizontal) could predict OCBO or OCBI. Vertical collectivism (VC) is a cultural pattern where individuals view themselves as part of an in-group, focus on in-group goals, and accept hierarchy and inequality while for horizontal collectivism (HC) individuals see themselves as members of an in-group of similar interdependent individuals who value equality (Singelis, Triandis, Bhawuk, & Gelfand, 1995). Vertical individualism (VI) is a cultural pattern where individuals see themselves as autonomous from the group, focus on achieving individual goals, are self-reliant, value competition and expect inequality while for horizontal individualism (HI) individuals view themselves as autonomous from the group, is self-reliant and value equality (Singelis et al.) Both forms of collectivism (VC and HC) and Vertical Individualism were significant predictors of OCB directed towards the individual (OCBI). Horizontal collectivism and vertical collectivism were significant predictors of a combined OCB scale, OCB-Total, since the original OCBO scale proved unreliable, but neither form of individualism was.