Chapter 3: Teachers as Mentors
From the Book: The Refractive Thinker®: Vol. VI: Post-Secondary Education


According to, 1992 was the baseline year used to measure secondary student academic performance in the traditional academic disciplines. What was once considered the traditional curriculum such as to include subjects such as : reading mathematics, and science were de-emphasized in 1992? which resulted resulting in the further decline in student scores to further decline or have no significant change. Then during the Clinton Administration, a new social welfare state was created and a new social policy paradigm evolved in America’s education culture (Béland & Vergniolle de Chantal, 2004 ).

Béland and Vergniolle de Chantal (2004) stressed that since the early 2000s, historical institutionalism had contributed to the political and sociological analysis of public policy especially in the area of welfare state politics and post secondary education. The social welfare state occurred although voters approved billions in new monies that went into the education social welfare state . In addition to federal tax dollars, voters approved tax dollars from state lotteries, state income tax increases, state sales tax increases, property tax increases, and other forms of tax increases all targeted to improve America’s faltering education throughout America.
Chapter Authors: