The Refractive Thinker® Vol XIX: Social Media: Changing the World Through Communication
The Refractive Thinker Press 2020
Number of Pages: 194


Publish date: October 23, 2020. Join Steve Farber, creator of Extreme Leadership and contributing scholars as they discuss doctoral research findings regarding the importance of social media. Doctoral scholars will share current research and their words of wisdom regarding effective strategies best used within various social media platforms as part of effective global conversations using digital communication. Are you in the know regarding the most up to date and effective strategies? Come join us! This volume will continue to shape the conversation of future success in business leadership around the world.


RT Vol XIX: Social Media: FOREWORD
The Importance of Love in Business
Nowhere is it more important to cultivate the idea of passion and love than in the workplace as we learn to engage with each other to become more committed to changing the world for the better. Love is not only appropriate in the context of business; it is the foundation of great leadership. No better time than now to move to even higher levels of discovery and personal connection to stoke the fires of business, amplify personal joy and meaning, and change the world in service of those who love what you do. . . .
RT XIX: Chap 1: Strategies to Reduce Social Media Addiction
Social media professionals can implement and market successful strategies to promote to individuals who are addicted to social media. These strategies could provide immediate help to those individuals who cannot live without being on social media formats such as Facebook, Instagram, and LinkedIn. If these strategies are promoted on viable marketing avenues it could be very beneficial to the local community. The social media professionals could also use the strategies to educate individuals who are addicted to being on social media to learn how to lessen the usage and dependability. The recommendations to reduce social media addiction includes organizational leaders, scholars, and social media stakeholders who could use the findings and recommendations of this study to further research for other successful strategies. Social media professionals can use a refractive thinking approach to implement effective strategies for reducing social media addiction.
RT XIX: Chap 2: Creative Strategies to Enhance Social Media Marketing
The use of social media gained momentum and advanced to public communications and interactions with customers and other stakeholders. With the rapid growth and expansion of social media marketing options, organizations’ leaders became interested in using social media to strategize marketing, prioritize goals, and produce high levels of performance to increase returns and minimize risks for the organization. Surveys indicated 89% of digital marketers wanted to know how the use of social media might increase their profitability and enhance their business operations. In this chapter of the Refractive Thinker®, the author presents an overview of creative strategies that might improve social media marketing. The author shares findings to enhance profitability and productivity and promote organizational growth from 10 qualitative interviews conducted with marketing managers in the United States who worked in social media marketing for a minimum of 2 years. The findings from the data analysis revealed that direct reward marketing strategy, promoting the influence of the company, and sponsoring community events increased marketing effectiveness.

RT XIX Chap 3 The Cybersecurity Considerations in Evolution of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning
The transformation of communication networks since the 1980s includes worldwide interactions, revolutionizing social networks to effect businesses, relationships, and lives. The ubiquity of electronic communication evolved from the extensive research in solving problems, pertaining to wartime communication strategies, which evolved the social media. The social networks came into existence in the 21st century to include predominantly Facebook, Google+ (G+), Instagram, LinkedIn, MySpace, Twitter, and YouTube, allowing connections and exchange of information. The risks for attacks exist in a world threatened by a range of spywares, installing malware to infect endpoints, exploiting software vulnerabilities to botnets, propagating similar to worms or viruses to launch coordinated attacks, presenting major threats and necessitating greater attention to individual security. The widespread commercialization of computing and modernization of electronic computers and the Internet ease delivery of services in the growing field of communication. The threat from malware and bots in communication networks to possibilities of biological warfare on a global level could run the lifecycle of a botnet to infect communication networks, devastating health, world-wide. The execution of the botnets infects vulnerable machines, using similar methods as other classes of malware. Botnets consist of robots and networks of infected machines with malware that an adversary controls, remotely to compromise vulnerabilities in computer systems, in cooperation with other bots, to accomplish certain illegal activities or tasks on a large scale to jeopardize the operation of private and public sectors. An application of a botnet infects endpoints, exploiting vulnerabilities in software, social engineering, and other defining characteristics using a command and control (C&C) infrastructure for communication between a threat actor, a botmaster or bot-herder and bot armies.
RT XIX: Chap 4 Applying Intelligent Data Share Gateways for Evidence-Based Medicine and Spending
The U.S. healthcare system continues to face many challenges, including fragmentation, waste, inefficiency, and a lack of evidence about the quality and cost-effectiveness of care, with multiple review articles suggesting that less than half of treatments support adequate evidence. As a result, patients and physicians lack the knowledge to make good evidence-based medicine and evidence-based spending decisions. In a well-functioning healthcare system, patients may find difficulty accessing data about their own health and the health and economic consequences of their decisions.

Healthcare data adds value to patient care as collecting and sharing of data is essential for better diagnosis analysis and outcomes. Concurrently, healthcare leaders continue to experience a technology paradigm shift regarding patient data sharing and COVID-19 enforces the need for digital transformation. Innovations such as mobile healthcare, telemedicine, and big data analytics drive this shift but require a strong, future-ready network infrastructure that supports peak healthcare performance. The network must be robust enough to support critical healthcare functions such as the rapid transfer of digital data for patients to participate in their care. The fast transfer of digital health data can improve surgery, implanted medical devices, pharmacy inventory, data management systems, and sophisticated medical alert systems. Healthcare organizations must embrace new technologies and allow for future growth with flexibility and scalability. Combining distributed ledger technology with mobile and social media technology engages patients through digital connections in real time while providing continuous feedback and becoming self-care educated through platforms such as Google, LinkedIn, and Facebook. The implication for positive social change includes the potential to improve the quality of life for healthcare recipients who may spend less on healthcare services and lessen the cost burden on hospital systems by using virtual web services. In this article, we proposed an architecture strategy to gather and share healthcare data based on monitoring medical implants using radio frequency identification (RFID) and Blockchain distributed ledger technology to enable patients to own, control, and share their own data without violating regulations. The strategy potentially provides healthcare leaders with a method to improve health system interoperability that adds intelligence and evidence to support medical decisions for better outcomes. The new paradigm entails the advent of modern digitization and how leaders can apply evolving data sharing and analysis technology knowledge for informed business decision making beyond traditional manual spreadsheet data base methods.
RT XIX Chap 5 A Leader's Guide to Employee Engagement
It is important to understand the strategies that business leaders use to overcome or mitigate the challenges of disengaged employees and encourage employee engagement. The business problem used in this single case study is that disengaged employees contribute to low productivity and low organizational performance because some business leaders lack successful strategies to overcome or mitigate the challenges of disengaged employees and encourage employee engagement. The findings contribute to social change by providing business leaders with possible solutions for improving organizational performance and retention, providing job opportunities within the local community, and contributing to the stability of the local community. Leaders should develop an effective employee–leader relationship to improve employee performance (Hayden, Fourné, Koene, Werkman, & Ansari, 2017). Lightle, Castellano, Baker, and Sweeney (2015) found that employees who perceive that they receive support from their leader feel inclined to increase their emotional commitment and engagement. Job alignment, or hiring the right people in the right place, is an important part of ensuring employee engagement (Alagaraja & Shuck, 2015). In Kahn’s theory, cognitively engaged team members share a common purpose (Shuck et al., 2015). Employees become good team members when they connect to leaders who ensure positive interactions. Business leaders need to determine what strategies are relevant for their business type. Leaders should develop and implement an engagement strategy, intended to improve the economic and financial performance of the business. Recommendations for future research included performing a multiple case study, which will provide a deeper understanding of the concept, focus research efforts on employee engagement strategies in other geographical regions and other companies in the same industry. Future researchers can consider conducting a mixed methodology study, which would allow for statistical explanations, supported by qualitative observations, of employee engagement strategies.
RT XIX: Chap 6 The Impact of Social Media on Consumer Buying Behavior
Social media has taken over the world of marketing. Still, marketing managers are struggling to integrate social media with their current integrated marketing communications (IMC). Marketing managers are in a difficult transition to digital technology and traditional media. This chapter focused on how consumers are making decisions with social media and how marketing managers can integrate social media into the ICM model.
RT XIX: Chap 7 Small Business Marketing Strategies to Gain Advantage through Social Media
Social media marketing used on platforms such as on Facebook, Twitter, Yelp, and Instagram is rapidly replacing traditional marketing like newspapers, brochures, and cold calling (Schivinski & Dabrowski, 2016). Its low budget cost and its effectiveness in reaching potential customers in less time than original marketing tools has created a shift from traditional marketing to social media marketing (Schivinski & Dabrowski, 2016). Social media provides opportunities way exceeds a company expectation and the ability to reach a larger audience due to its massive user base (Griffin & Herres, 2002). Small business owners can use social marketing to connect with their customers, create brand recognition, and target new and existing customers (Proserpio & Zervas, 2017). In this chapter of the Refractive Thinker®, I present an outline of business strategies for small businesses to gain an advantage through social media marketing.
RT XIX: Chap 8 Rethinking Social Media and Content Delivery in Higher Education Institutions
Use of social media for learning purposes presents a huge but an untapped resource in many higher education institutions. The 2020 pandemic crisis has affected higher education operations and especially those that depended largely on face-to-face mode of content delivery. Many higher education institutions are counting losses in terms of time and negative impact on content delivery. Globally, the number of children, youth not attending schools and colleges was more than 1.5 billion by March, 2020. A number of learners, especially those who have smartphones are busy online using social media platforms to interact with friends. Suppose the universities and other colleges try to diversify creatively and get the students on those platforms? As the population of the youth in Africa continues to grow, higher education must always keep abreast in relevance and demonstrate creativity. It would be prudent for educators to migrate from conventional teaching platforms to where students spend most of their time. Higher education just like other learning institutions faced unpreparedness due to the unpredictable 2020 pandemic. In an attempt to contain the global pandemic, many school systems and universities are hurriedly preparing materials for online and remote teaching and learning in an effort to adopt new technologies to reach learners at their homes. The role that social media can play in content delivery in higher education in Africa is a discussion that is long overdue and far from over.
RT Vol XIX Chap 9 Social Media: The Tools of Protesting by Millennials in the Digital Age
Social media remains a tool in the toolbox of society since its inception. When first created, social media was a way for people to communicate with others in the digital space, implying social connection and engagement, with the ability to connect communities. As each social media platform develops its own distinct personality and purpose, social media continues to evolve in its purpose and application. Recently, a particular generation learned to leverage this tool to take action to right many of society’s wrongs. Described as the “impatient generation” (Papadatou, 2019), Millennials want to see results immediately and refuse to wait for the bureaucracy of the legal system to run its course. Millennials often use the psychology of warfare to effect societal change. With the immediacy and speed never before seen in a generation, the protest of words, marches, or speeches is not swift enough. Instead, this new generation has found a refractive application of a tool that does more than communicate and connect communities. How Millennials wield social media as a sword to influence immediate change, was the focus of this article.