The Refractive Thinker®: Vol. III: Change Management
The Refractive Thinker®: Press 2009
Number of Pages: 240


I think therefore I am. --Rene Descartes
I critically think to be.
I refractively think to change the world.

Welcome to The Refractive Thinker®: Volume III: Change Management.

Thank you for joining us for the second Fall 2009 edition, Volume III as we continue to celebrate the accomplishments of these doctoral scholars affiliated with many phenomenal institutions of higher learning. The purpose of this next offering in this anthology series is to share yet another glimpse into the scholarly works of these authors, specifically on the topic of change management.

In addition to exploring various aspects of change management, the purpose of The Refractive Thinker® is also to serve the tenets of leadership. Leadership is not simply a concept outside of the self, but comes from within, defining our very essence; where the search to define leadership becomes our personal journey not yet a finite destination.
The Refractive Thinker® is an intimate expression of who we are—the ability to think beyond the traditional boundaries of thinking and critical thinking. Instead of mere reflection and evaluation, one challenges the very boundaries of the constructs itself. As in volumes I and II, the authors within these pages are on a mission to change the world, never satisfied or quite content with what is or asking why, instead these authors intentionally strive to push and test the limits to ask why not. Join us on this next adventure of The Refractive Thinker® where Volume III continues the discussion specifically themed for this volume to explore the realm of change management. This offers yet another bite of the apple from the tree of knowledge upon an ever expanding canvas from which these authors choose to cast their paint, envisioning new horizons in which to move forward and explore in the future.

I invite you to join with me as we venture forward to showcase these authors of Volume III. The goal is to offer a chance to bring to publication more ideas for which the audience may be interested in the expertise and guidance that they offer.

Please contact me for further information regarding these authors and the works contained within these pages. Perhaps you or your organization may be looking for their expertise to incorporate as part of your annual corporate meetings as a key note or guest speaker(s), perhaps to offer individual or group seminars or coaching, or require their expertise as consultants.
We look forward to your interest in discussing future opportunities. Let this continue our journey begun with volume I to which The Refractive Thinker® will serve as our guide to this and future volumes. Come join us in our quest to be refractive thinkers and add your wisdom to the collective. We look forward to your stories.


Chapter 1: Change Management: The Role of Leaders to Prevent and Eliminate Workplace Bullying
Workplace bullying is a problem and is an important organizational and social concern. Leaders as change agents must learn to recognize bullying behavior. Bullying at work is the repeated, malicious mistreatment of a target by a harassing bully driven by the bully's desire to control the target (Namie, 2003). Bullying is unwelcome behavior that is persistent and consistent, meant to harass and harm, and mean to gain some type of control. Bullying behavior can take many forms, including defamatory remarks, intimidation, social exclusion, and physical violence. Recognizing the signs of bullies and knowing the different types can help leaders and targets handle the situation. Determining the type of bully a person is dealing with would make it easier for leaders and coworkers to understand what the bully wants and is trying to accomplish. By valuing the power and control over others that individual behavior evokes, leaders and managers play a crucial role in the identification of both bullies and Targets and can be very instrumental in decreasing and preventing bullying behaviors.
Chapter 3: “Change Agent” Attributes: Pillars of Leadership Effectiveness
Organizational changes may provide new opportunities for an organization to become more successful and leading change through effective leadership may be the key in getting there. According to Yukl (2010),"leading change is one of the most important and difficult leadership responsibilities" (p. 298). Effective leadership must drive change and support individuals during organizational changes. This chapter describes 'change agent' attributes and pillars of effectiveness for organizational change. The 'change agent' attributes examined in this chapter include: communication, flexibility, resilience, confidence, commitment, positive attitude, humor, passion, motivation, and innovation and creativity. This chapter provides research and findings of the top three 'change agent' attributes that 'change agent' leaders consider to be most important for their organization to be successful during organizational changes.
Chapter 4: The Relationship Between Values and Leadership Styles
What is the relationship between the leadership styles and the values of chief executive officers? How can boards of organizations tarnished by scandals select chief executives with strong value systems who can bring ethical reforms and restore trust?
The U.S. nonprofit sector is in need of reforms to restore public trust after several highly publicized scandals resulting from mismanagement and leadership failures undermined the reputation of the sector. Selecting leaders who can bring positive, values-based change to the nonprofit industry represents a significant challenge and an opportunity. Understanding the relationship between values and leadership styles of nonprofit leaders can assure nonprofit boards that transformational leaders have strong values systems and can also assist boards in the leadership assessment and selection process.
A quantitative, correlational research study was undertaken to measure the relationship between the leadership styles (transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire) and values (personal, social, morality-based, and competency-based) of nonprofit leaders. The results of the study produced statistical indications suggesting that the predominant transformational leadership paradigm may offer a solution to restore the reputation of nonprofits and re-establish public trust. Nonprofit boards may use existing instruments, such as the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and a modified version of the Rokeach Value Survey, which was used in this study, in the assessment and selection of transformational leaders with strong value systems. Further leadership research may provide additional insights on the relationship of leadership styles and values of chief executives.
Chapter 5: Becoming an Agent of Transformation
In the analysis of becoming an agent of transformation, one will discover how higher level critical thinking skills and creativity provide more effective leadership in today's organizations. The analysis will explain how innovation, ingenuity, and motivation enable leaders to effectively lead organizations and create an atmosphere of excitement. The analysis will also explore the creativity, critical thought, and effective leadership of past leaders. An agent of transformation lesson will be that effective leadership is during chaotic times and uncertainty.
Chapter 6: Defining a New Model for the Transformational Retirement
The transformation of retirement blends a combination of life planning and wellness topics to provide a whole person view on how to prepare for this transition. Through careful case study analysis, a new model, for retirement is unfolding. The previous views of traditional retirements are no longer valid and a new transformational retirement is emerging. As the Baby Boomers head toward retirement and the taboo truths about retirement are revealed, society can become empowered to understand retirement and utilize retirees more effectively. The United States population is at a critical turning point in families, organizations and as a society as the Baby Boomers retire. This chapter provides solutions to this challenging life transition and its societal impact.
Chapter 7: Educational Organizations: Managing Change to Improve Student Learning
Schools have little control over the individual needs of students and the economic conditions within a community. Regardless, educational leaders must meet the needs of all students to improve individual student performance (Ramirez, 2002). Therefore, educational organizations must change to meet the varied demands of funding limitations, student need, and student learning. This article proposes two strategies administrators can use to mange imposed change and to manage a long-term remediation plan to improve student performance. An imposed change is required when an educational organization needs an urgent change in policy and practice for immediate success. A long-term remediation plan is purposeful in developing programs that align curriculum, instruction, and assessment within a school through communities of practice.
Chapter 8: Successful Change Management Begins With Effective Leader-Follower Relationships
Successful change management begins with effective leader-follower relationship. Effective leader-follower relationship leads to effective team performance. The purpose of the Fan’s quantitative descriptive correlational study was to examine how congruent values and leadership styles contribute to team performance. Although the results of Fan study showed no significant correlation between the variables congruent values, leadership styles, and team performance, the results showed that strong agreement was indicated among interviewed participants with regard to the importance of having the values of integrity, trustworthiness, the ability to listen to others, respect for others, courage, persistence, and exemplarity in themselves and in their leaders. The findings may be applicable to leaders who proactively search for an opportunity to implement constructive changes to improve effectiveness in teams.
Chapter 9: Executive Coaching: A Strategy for Effective Change Management
In the 2008 Kress research study Executive coaching was defined as a leadership development strategy individualized, experiential and intended to improve a leader’s skills so they can more effectively achieve organizational goals. Executive coaching has been implemented by organizations as a leadership development strategy that enhances skills and knowledge related to self-awareness improving individual performance.
Leaders are aware that internal and external changes are the state of business today. Change is inevitable and people and business will resist for as long as possible for fear of the unknown or simply wanting to maintain the status quo. Change is not only resisted within the organizational structure but also in leadership development strategies. There is a demand for a new leadership approach, enhanced leadership skills, and a cause for the growing interest in executive coaching.
The leadership training and development personnel within organizations have realized the effectiveness of executive coaching and its success in enhancing leadership skills, and they have replaced traditional leadership development and training programs with executive coaching programs (Hernez-Broome & Hughes, 2004; Hutton, 2003; Zenger & Stinnett, 2006). Executive coaching is a leadership development strategy that helps cultivate necessary skills not easily learned during formal training programs.
Organizations need leaders who are able to adjust to change rapidly and effectively (Chen, 2006). Future leaders need to have the ability to work through the process of change while making improvements within their industry (Zenger & Stinnett, 2006). Organizational leaders who embrace the need for a change in traditional leadership development methods will become more effective.
It is paramount that organizations have effective change management strategies. The strategies can only effectively be implement by leaders who have developed skills and demonstrate leadership behaviors that respect the diversity of the organizational culture. Classroom based leadership development does not provide the real-time learning and development necessary to meet the demands of the fast paced business world. Self-awareness is essential to effective leadership and future leaders need to have a high level of self-awareness in order to lead effectively.
Executive coaching is a leadership strategy utilized by organizational leaders to close performance gaps and advance leadership skills more rapidly using real-time leadership development methods. Executive coaching is an individualized approach maximizing personal performance. Executive coaching has helped leaders achieve measurable results, influences self-awareness and reflection sustaining leaders changed behaviors.
Chapter 10: Strategic Change Management: The Importance of Inclusiveness
For many who are in a position of leadership and influence, the management of change simply involves a discussion regarding the what component of the equation: This needs to be extended to also include What will change and why? While few will dispute that the only constant in life is the very nature of change itself, with change being simply a function of the inevitable passage of time, what is often overlooked with this conceptual element of change and its strategic management is the process, the function of change itself. While the debate will continue as to the priority of importance, either the what or the how things are done, the focus of this writing will be on the how, including the importance of inclusiveness.