The Refractive Thinker® Vol XIV: Health Care: The Impact on Leadership, Business, and Education.
The Refractive Thinker® The Refractive Thinker® Press 2018
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Coming Spring 2018. Join contributing scholars as they discuss current research regarding health care and the impact on leadership, business, and education. This volume will continue to shape the conversation regarding the future success of the economy as part of leading the business and educational landscape as society navigates these turbulent waters.


Foreword Vol XIV
The science of medicine has grown and advanced since that time so fast that it is almost impossible to keep up with it. Every day there is a new scientific principle that is presented and what we thought was fact years ago is no longer valid. This book dealing with Refractive Thinking is witness to that fact. What I was taught in medical school and is still being taught has to do with the concept that Pain and Disease are our enemies and our focus is to get rid of them and sometimes in our fight against death we are killing life.

In the early 1970s, a group of physicians who were thinking and practicing “outside of the box” became aware of the reality that something was missing in the way medicine was being practiced. What we realized was that the art of medicine, which is the very essence and spirit of medicine, was considered irrelevant and completely overshadowed by the science of medicine so we started the American Holistic Medical Association. It took us 2 years to decide how to spell holistic and it was only when we realized that the word we were talking about had its root in words like holistic healing and health so of course it had to start with an H.

Although it has come a long way from the medicine that my parents practiced in the jungles of India and those of us who started the AHMA, there is still much work to be done. The future of medicine is bright as the Feminine Face of medicine reemerges and the Art and Science of medicine join together to understand and practice Living Medicine.

(For the complete Foreword, please see the book).
Vol XIV: Ch. 1 The Effects of the Affordable Care Act on Small Business
The Affordable Care Act is arguably one of the most beneficial legacies of former U.S. President Barrack Obama that presented controversies in healthcare and business settings. This paper took a refractive thinking approach to the potential impacts of Obamacare on the healthcare organization with a focus on small business. The Act affects small and large as well as not-for profit and for-profit organizations though in different and unique ways. Key contentious issue with the Obamacare is the provision that requires employers to provide qualified and affordable health benefits to their employees or pay a tax penalty. As clarified herein this prevision is limited to large organizations with 50 plus full-time employees and full-time equivalent (FTE) employees but not to small businesses. The Act is quite lenient to Small-sized businesses. It has established the SHOP which is targeted as small businesses with 1-50 full-time equivalent workers that want to offer dental and health coverage to their workers. This SHOP benefits the corporations with less than 25 FTE employees, and it is a major boost to small businesses and will help increase employee motivation. On the overall the Obamacare has had a massive effect on the hospital financial management. It has effectively lowered the cost of healthcare for business and improved access to healthcare. The Act may be impacting on the employer profitability and employee motivation; and ultimately the value of business negatively.

Vol XIV: Ch 2 Lived Experiences from Nine HIV+ African Women That Contributed to Their HIV Seroconversion and Their Insights for HIV Prevention
African American females contract HIV mainly through heterosexual exposure that deems seroconversion or HIV transmission a behaviorally acquired disease. Therefore, HIV is largely preventable provided if specific prevention strategies and intervention are accessible and implemented prior to risky behavior or unprotected sex with an infected male. Nine HIV positive African American females from ages 39 to 78 shared their deepest perceptions, though many unpleasant, of their lived experiences that resulted in their seroconversion and brought meaning to their highly stigmatized disease and sufferings. In addition, each participant provided information on how they, health care leaders, and HIV/AIDS prevention advocates such as the lead researcher can reach out to prevent future generations from having to live their experiences.
The spiritual underpinnings of the participants’ lived experiences produced the importance of the theme for personal spirituality and clearly defined the need for spirituality and faith based initiatives in reducing HIV transmission. Of all ethnic populations in the industrialized world, African Americans are by far the most spiritually led population (Gallup & Newport, 2006 Nobles, 1996), and an estimate of more than 80% of African Americans report that religious convictions direct and sustain their lives (Gallup & Newport, 2006).